Friday, 25 August 2017

Rivers as Legal Persons

Rivers as Legal Persons

Source: Economic & Politica Weekly

A Regressive Step
Bushra Quasmi ( teaches at the Damodaram Sanjivayya National Law University, Visakhapatnam.

The recent decision by the Uttarakhand High Court to declare the Ganga and Yamuna rivers as “juristic persons” is skewed and based on flawed legal reasoning. The judgment threatens to undermine years of progress made in environmental jurisprudence and fails to serve the purposes of environmental conservation and sustainable use of river water.

The High Court of Uttarakhand has consecrated two Indian rivers as juristic persons along the lines of Hindu idols, companies and the Church in a stand-alone judgment on 20 March 2017 (Mohd Salim v State of Uttarakhand, 2017). A division bench comprising Justices Rajiv Sharma and Alok Singh declared,
The Rivers Ganga and Yamuna, all their tributaries, streams, every natural water flowing with flow continuously and intermittently of these rivers, as juristic/legal persons/living entities having the status of legal persons with all corresponding rights, duties and liabilities of a living person in order to preserve and conserve the rivers. (Paragraph 19).
The bench exercised the doctrine of parens patriae and directed that a Ganga Management Board be constituted. It appointed the director of the Namami Gange Programme1 and the chief secretary and advocate general of the state of Uttarakhand as persons in loco parentis as the “human face to protect, conserve and preserve Rivers Ganga and Yamuna and their tributaries.” These officers have been entrusted with the onerous task of promoting the health and well-being of both rivers.

Skewed Reasoning

The bench, while arriving at this conclusion, was ostensibly motivated by the profound sense of faith of certain communities in the piety of both rivers, as well as the need to protect India’s wealth of natural resources. The rationale is lucid, as many people repose their faith in the rivers as deities, while also being dependent on the rivers for multifarious purposes, such as sustenance, irrigation, livelihood and development. Further, the Indian judiciary is saddled with a sacred duty, as the champion of the people’s rights, to protect the rights of citizens to a wholesome environment, enjoyment of natural resources, and their fundamental right to water. Thus, the mandate is clear; it is imperative that the rivers be protected.

The reasoning applied by the bench is skewed and roundabout, and only stands in that the concept of a “juristic person” is well-recognised in legal theory. However, the bench has willy-nilly cherry-picked legal principles and pronounced a judgment that threatens to undermine years of progress made in environmental jurisprudence. As per the bench, the concept of an artificial juristic personality was created in response to the need for assigning rights and liabilities to artificial beings for “subserving the needs and faith of society.” It has proved to be an effective tool to look into the functioning of companies, corporate bodies, as well as places of religious worship. Paragraphs 14 and 15 of the judgment discuss this concept of artificial personality, where an inanimate object, a non-natural person or an association of persons is awarded a distinct juristic personality along with all the corresponding rights and liabilities. This juristic person functions through a manager or appointed guardian who is entrusted with the responsibility of managing funds for the corpus.

It is, thus, under a well-settled principle of legal theory that trusts, minors, hospitals, etc, are endowed with an artificial personality. The concept is especially useful in India as it provides for accountability and transparency of private trusts, temple boards, maths, waqfs, etc. However, to apply it to a common pool resource like a river is a stretch. Further, the notion that it will be of any use or significance when applied towards conservation of a river is questionable.

First, a river is not a deity simpliciter. A particular section of society may repose faith, belief and worship in a river, but for others it is only a natural resource to be utilised in an effective and sustainable manner. There is no comparison between an idol in a temple or a private company, and a river, which is a natural common pool resource. The bench has cited Yogendra Nath Naskar v Commission of Income Tax, Calcutta (1969) as a precedent where it was held that a “Hindu idol is a juristic entity capable of holding property and of being taxed through its shebaits who are entrusted with the possession and management of its property.”

This reasoning cannot be applied to a river as there is stark difference between a flowing river with its many tributaries—a natural resource that belongs to generations of people with millions of stakeholders dependent on it for survival and sustenance—and a temple management board. Temple boards are socio-religious trusts comprising members nominated by both the government and community. Their aim is to manage temples and their assets and to ensure their smooth operation in accordance with traditional rituals and customs prescribed under religious scriptures. Their very nature is exclusionary to non-believers. A river board, on the other hand, as per the River Boards Act, 1956 was envisaged as a state body designed to advise the central government on development opportunities, and to coordinate activities and resolve disputes pertaining to rivers. Under their mandate, the boards were required to provide advice to the government on various issues related to rivers. However, due to the failure of the Indian government to constitute a river board since the act was enacted almost 50 years ago, the exact nature of a river board cannot be ascertained. However, the secular and inclusionary nature of such a board—should one be created—cannot be doubted.
Further, the justices have alluded to the endowment of juristic personality on an idol that is linked with a natural person like a shebait or manager. Reference has been made to Prosanna Kumari Debya v Golab Chand Baboo (1875), which deals with the role of shebaits when an inanimate object is consecrated as a deity so that divinity may be attributed to it. There is a tacit direction that the members of the Ganga Management Board will have duties and responsibilities like that of a shebait. This is an absurd perversion of constitutional morality, which will give birth to numerous problems between various stakeholders in any river issue. For example, were the religious wishes of one section of society to come into conflict with the needs of another, as is bound to happen in a multicultural pluralistic society, it will be difficult to assign priority to either.

Need for a Scientific Approach
Second, sustainable development and environmentalism are simply better served through a scientific approach supported by inclusive steps that involve people irrespective of distinctions of belief, faith, caste and gender. Historically, Indian environmentalism did lay emphasis on religious scriptures and texts in the 1960s, but in a rapidly industrialising and globalised world, such an ideology is simply not sufficient to address the problems of climate change and ecological imbalance. The introduction of a religious narrative now, after years of constitutional and political struggle seeking to look at conservation through a dispassionate and scientific lens, is a regressive step. Natural resource conservation efforts in India are already suffering from various problems associated with activities of a religious nature, such as pollution caused during kumbh melas, mass prayer meetings, etc. The Art of Living case (Manoj Misra v Delhi Development Authority and Ors, 2016) is now a textbook example of the non-alignment of religious sentiments of people and ecological, environmental interests.
Third, the appointment of officers of the lone state of Uttarakhand as persons in loco parentis for the two rivers is likely to create more problems as future strategies for river conservation are devised. The language used in the judgment appears to give the impression that the state of Uttarakhand shall have the sole responsibility and associated rights for the “promotion of health and well-being” of the rivers and their tributaries. As one of the largest river systems in the world—flowing through the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal, besides Uttarakhand—there are bound to be conflicts between these states when it comes to strategies, planning, and implementation of river rejuvenation and conservation efforts. Further, the exact contour of duties of loco parentis, when applied to natural resources, is uncharted territory.
Nevertheless, if the newly assigned personality to these rivers helps conservationists jump a few hoops towards a cleaner and more rejuvenated Ganga and Yamuna, or inspires more sentimental vigour in society towards the environment and ecology, then it will be a welcome decision. However, one is not hopeful, knowing that the condition of natural resources, ecology, and biodiversity of the country are in a shambles despite the fact that rivers and nature are culturally regarded as maternal figures.

1 The Namami Gange Programme is run by the National Mission for Clean Ganga, which is a registered society and acts as the nodal agency responsible for the implementation of various projects to clean up and rejuvenate the river Ganga.
Cases Cited
Manoj Misra v Delhi Development Authority and Ors (2016): NGT.
Mohd Salim v State of Uttarakhand (2017): SCC OnLine, Utt, p 367.
Prosanna Kumari Debya v Golab Chand Baboo (1875): LR, IndAp, 2, p 145.
Yogendra Nath Naskar v Commission of Income Tax, Calcutta (1969): SCC, SC, 1, p 555.


Bacterial Bioremediation for Ganga Pollution With Community Knowledge for Coconut Coir

Bacterial Bioremediation for Ganga Pollution With Community Knowledge for Coconut Coir

Based on its experience in Delhi and Agra INTACH has initiated a one month pilot project for cleaning wastewater flow in Assi Nadi using the process of bacterial bioremediation.

The outer layers covering the coconut seed are processed and spun into fibers commonly known as coir.

Byproducts/Waste : 

By weight, coir fibers account for about one-third of the coconut pulp. The other two-thirds, the coir pith (also known as coir dust), has generally been considered a useless waste material. Although it is biodegradable, it takes 20 years to decompose. Millions of tons sit in huge piles in India and Sri Lanka. During the last half of the 1980s, researchers successfully developed processes to transform coir pith into a mulching, soil treatment, and hydroponic (without soil) growth medium that is used as an alternative to such materials as peat moss and vermiculite. Before being compressed into briquettes for sale, the coir pith is partially decomposed through the action of certain microbes and fungi. An Australian company has also recently begun turning coir pith into an absorbent product used to remediate oil spills.
The retting process used in coir fiber production generates significant water pollution. Among the major organic pollutants are pectin, pectosan, fat, tannin, toxic polyphenols, and several types of bacteria including salmonella. Scientists are experimenting with treatment options, and at least one coir manufacturing company claims to be treating its effluent water.  

INTACH pilot project reduces Assi River Pollution in Varanasi by 70% in two months, at least cost, without any structure.

Page no. 17, 18, Virasat /January - March 201

Link Here :

official site :

On INTACH’s Pilot Project on Assi Nadi [24th Jan/17 – 26th Feb/17]
Guest Blog by Manu Bhatnagar, INTACH 
                                         for link: more                                             
  1. INTACH is a national non-profit organization, a registered society under Society’s Act since 1984, having the Secretaries of the GoI Ministries of Environment, Forest & Ganga Rejuvenation, Ministry of Urban Development, Ministry of Culture, DG [ASI] and DG [NM] on its Governing Council with its accounts duly audited by the Office of CAG.
  2. High pollution load in holy River Ganga at Varanasi is due to domestic wastewater flowing into the river through 33 nallahs and rivulets. Sewerage systems and treatment plants are going to take several years to be in place and effective. In the meantime the river will continue to remain polluted. Based on its experience in Delhi and Agra INTACH has initiated a one month pilot project for cleaning wastewater flow in Assi Nadi using the process of bacterial bioremediation.
3.0 INTACH, as a conscious institutional citizen, initiated a pilot project at its own cost, to reduce pollution in Assi Nadi using low cost unconventional technology. In obedience to directions of Hon’ble High Court, Allahabad, the Director, NMCG, constituted a committee under chairmanship of Commissioner, Varanasi Division for carrying out various improvements related to the Ganga river, which Committee vide its minutes of meeting of 13th June, 2016 and subsequent minutes of meeting dated 19/9/16 granted an NOC to INTACH to carry out a pilot project of pollution abatement of Assi Nadi at its own cost subject to approval by the Committee’s environmental expert, Prof. UK Choudhary, which approval was granted by the learned professor on 28th Oct/2016 after a detailed explanation by INTACH of the proposed process and activities. Subsequently, INTACH mobilized its resources during December, 2016 and implemented the pre-project preparations by 23rd January, 2017.
4.0 The Assi Nadi is some 3.5 km long and meanders through some very densely populated built up areas directly discharging wastewater into the Nadi. All along there has been severe encroachment of the Nadi bed and channel and in the absence of adequate solid waste collection much garbage [including carcasses find their way into the Nadi] The discharge in the Nadi was measured on 3 days for 24 hours each and amounted to 66 MLD [probably 70 MLD as some flow was bypassing the V –Notch]. The water is fast flowing owing to the elevation difference of 27m between origin and river level.

Encroachments and Garbage Dumping (Photo: INTACH)

Floating Garbage Adding To Pollution And poor Aesthetics (Photo: INTACH)

5.0 Several tests of water quality were carried out before start of treatment:
Sl. No. Parameter mg/ltr Near Confluence Point    5/15
 of Ganga
Near Confluence Point     12/16
 of Ganga
1. BOD 160 185
2. COD 436.4 240
3. TSS 422 196
4. Sulphide 2
5. DO 0.1
6. Phosphate ( as PO4) 6.2
7. Nitrate (NO4) 4
8. Turbidity NTU 20

Hourly Flow Measurement Over 24 Hours [2 Days Consecutively]

6.0 Challenges : There were several challenges to be overcome as follows :
  1. Severe floating garbage disposition
  2. High velocity of flow giving little retention time for treatment
  3. Close encroachments on active channel land causing encroaching public to resist interventions which raise water levels
  4. Several inflows even in the last 300m before river outfall which are difficult to treat in short stretch

Sewage Leaking From Sulabh Shauchalaya [Note Another Inflow At Bottom of Image]

New Toilets Discharge Directly Into Assi (Photo: INTACH)

7.0 Proposed Solution : To overcome the challenges several interventions were planned and implemented as follows :
  1. Bioremediation methods would be adopted – bioremediation is the process of removal of pollutants from polluted water (basically organic in nature) with the help of biological products
  2. Introduction of bacteria concentrates [a precisely balanced blend of naturally occurring, strictly Anaerobic & Facultative live bacterial strains that start dispersing immediately on dilution with water] @ of 100 litres of concentrate per day dozed into the stream at 6 carefully selected locations. The bacteria degrades organic pollutants, enhances dissolved oxygen levels, removes odours.
  3. Increase retention time by installing soil bag weirs at three locations – this intervention would create a lagoon on the upstream side allowing settling action as well as greater retention period on the otherwise fast flowing stream
  4. Installation of coir log bundles [using 75 logs dispersed and anchored at 20 locations] – coconut coir logs are biodegradable logs specially redesigned with coco-peat inside the core – serves as a medium for bacteria to reside, grow and treat the pollutants, serves as a filtering medium to certain extent, serves to reduce the velocity of water flow by obstructing the flow
  5. Installation of submerged Bio-Media – Two types of Bio-Media adopted – 1) Submerged Bio Media which serves as medium for anaerobic bacteria to reside, grow and treat the pollutants and – 2) Moving Bed Bio Media which serves as a medium for the facultative bacteria
  6. Manual removal of floating waste – this had to be done to provide an aesthetic appearance as well as retain operational efficiency and also avoid residents’ objections. However, this is strictly a municipal function which needs to be performed by Municipality regularly and effectively to prevent any solid waste reaching the Assi Nadi.
Coir Logs and Bio Media (INTACH)

8.0 Why Bioremediation :
  • Correctly speaking all sewage must be captured and taken to STPs [centralized or decentralized] for treatment and not allowed to flow through storm water channels. The exercise entails individual household connections, sewerage system, pumping stations,  STP –  a matter of few years [and being implemented for last 3 decades]
  • Till such time pollution abatement essential and bioremediation as proposed provides effective solution
  • Proposed solution can be implemented in a matter of 2 months and very economically
  • Significant pollution reduction to the extent of 70% – rest can be taken care of by river’s own natural resilience and self cleansing capacity
Interventions by INTACH

Coir Log Arrangement (INTACH)
Coir Logs and Bio Media (INTACH)

Coir Log Arrangement (INTACH)

Coir Logs and Soil Bag Weir (INTACH)

9.0 Operations : The work of installing the interventions commenced in the last week of December, 2016 and was completed by 23 January, 2017. On 24th January, 2017 the bacteria concentrate dozing was commenced.

Soil Bag Weirs – Note the Lagoon Formation On Upstream Side (INTACH)

Soil Bag Weirs – Note the Lagoon Formation On Upstream Side (INTACH)

Soil Bag Weir At Ravindrapuri Bridge (INTACH)

Submerged Plastic Media

10. Even as early as 28th Jauary, 2017 residents along the Nadi reported substantial reduction in foul odour [interview with basti pradhan recorded] and their relief from the same and their positive impression of water quality improvement. Regular bathers at Assi Ghat also vouched for a palpable improvement in water quality.

Arrangements For Bacteria Dozing (INTACH)

Bacteria Concentrate Being Dripped Into the Polluted Stream (INTACH)

Basti Pradhan Expressing Satisfaction At Water Quality Improvement (INTACH)

Pre Treatment Appearance (INTACH)

Intermediate Stage Clarity (INTACH)

Post Treatment Appearance (INTACH)

11. Water Testing : Testing was carried out in December, 2017 before start of work and the results are as follows :

more more click here : more


Thursday, 24 August 2017

Agri price forecasting model

Agri price forecasting model

Karnataka ropes in Microsoft to help farmers

Mobile app to help farmers overcome crop damage launched in India


A tough balancing act: The new bitter North-South divide in India’s sugar industry

Cane-starved southern mills want duty-free raw sugar imports, which the industry particularly in UP is bound to resist

The Trump discontinuity

His new Afghan strategy could be a game-changer for South Asia. There is an opportunity for India

And the war goes on 

(Donald Trump’s plan for Afghanistanis still too short on specifics )

Understanding work

In a timely initiative, a global commission is to look at the changing dynamics of work 

 A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) of critique

The Srikrishna committee has lost an opportunity to push for the recalibration of the Indian BIT regime

The recent report of the Justice B.N. Srikrishna committee, constituted to prepare a road map to make India a hub of international arbitration, has recommended many changes in Indian arbitration law and institutional mechanisms to promote arbitration in India.


Moss serves as a cheap pollution monitor

source: Delicate mosses found on rocks and trees in cities around the world could prove a low-cost way to monitor urban pollution   | Photo Credit: S.S. Kumar

 The bioindicator responds to pollution by changing shape, density or disappearing, allowing scientists to calculate atmospheric alterations

Delicate mosses found on rocks and trees in cities around the world can be used to measure the impact of atmospheric change and could prove a low-cost way to monitor urban pollution, according to Japanese scientists.
The “bioindicator” responds to pollution or drought-stress by changing shape, density or disappearing, allowing scientists to calculate atmospheric alterations, said Yoshitaka Oishi, associate professor at Fukui Prefectural University.
“This method is very cost effective and important for getting information about atmospheric conditions,” Oishi told the Thomson Reuters Foundation by telephone.
“Mosses are a common plant in all cities so we can use this method in many countries ... they have a big potential to be bioindicators,” said Oishi, who analysed nearly 50 types of moss for the study.
Oishi said humid cities where moss thrives could benefit most from using bryophytes – a collective term for mosses, hornworts and liverworts – as bioindicators, adding moss could be monitored in its natural environment or cultivated for analysis.

Effect of nitrogen pollution

In a research paper published in the Landscape and Urban Planning journal, Oishi and a colleague described how they studied the effect of nitrogen pollution, air quality and drought-stress on moss found over a 3km square (1.9 mile) area in Hachioji City in northwestern Tokyo.
The study showed severe drought-stress tended to occur in areas with high levels of nitrogen pollution, which it said raised concerns over the impact on health and biodiversity.
However, the scientists could not effectively measure air purity which affects the number of moss types as pollution levels in the sample area were not high enough, said Oishi.
“If the air pollution is severe, the purity is also evaluated by moss ... the change of the moss is very diverse according to the environmental problem,” said Oishi.
Bioindicators such as mosses - which generally absorb water and nutrients from their immediate environments - were often cheaper to use than other methods of environmental evaluation, and can also reflect changes to ecosystems, said the scientists. 

Out on several LIMBS

A Legal Information Management & Briefing System can help reduce government litigation 

National Litigation Policy (NLP) in 2010 and need for evolving new litigation policy

Internet shaming?

We live in fear of online mobs

Internet shaming spreads everywhere and lives forever. We need a way to fight it

Behavior & Society

The Bright Side of Internet Shaming

It's become so common that it might soon begin to lose its impact


JUDGES VIEW ON On instant triple talaq verdict

                              JUDGES VIEW ON On instant triple talaq verdict

Related image

सुप्रीम कोर्ट का बड़ा फैसला, राइट टु प्राइवेसी मौलिक अधिकारों का हिस्सा है

सुप्रीम कोर्ट का बड़ा फैसला, राइट टु प्राइवेसी मौलिक अधिकारों का हिस्सा है

एक बेहद अहम फैसले के तौर पर सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने निजता के अधिकार, यानी राइट टु प्राइवसी को 

मौलिक अधिकारों, यानी फन्डामेंटल राइट्स का हिस्सा करार दिया है.

नई दिल्ली: एक बेहद अहम फैसले के तौर पर सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने निजता के अधिकार, यानी राइट टु प्राइवसी को मौलिक अधिकारों, यानी फन्डामेंटल राइट्स का हिस्सा करार दिया है. नौ जजों की संविधान पीठ ने 1954 और 1962 में दिए गए फैसलों को पलटते हुए कहा कि राइट टु प्राइवेसी मौलिक अधिकारों के अंतर्गत प्रदत्त जीवन के अधिकार का ही हिस्सा है. इस फैसले का असर सीधे-सीधे विभिन्न सरकारी योजनाओं आधार कार्ड से जोड़ने के मामले पर पड़ेगा. सुप्रीम कोर्ट में कुल 21 याचिकाएं थीं. कोर्ट ने 7 दिनों की सुनवाई के बाद 2 अगस्त को फैसला सुरक्षित रख लिया था. दरअसल 1950 में 8 जजों की बेंच और 1962 में 6 जजों की बेंच ने कहा था कि 'राइट टु प्राइवेसी' मौलिक अधिकार नहीं है. सुप्रीम कोर्ट की पीठ में CJI जेएस खेहर, जस्टिस जे चेलामेश्वर, जस्टिस AR बोबडे, जस्टिस आर के अग्रवाल, जस्टिस रोहिंग्टन नरीमन, जस्टिस अभय मनोगर स्प्रे, जस्टिस डीवाई चंद्रचूड, जस्टिस संजय किशन कौल और जस्टिस अब्दुल नजीर शामिल हैं.

क्या थी कोर्ट की दलील
सुनवाई के दौरान सुप्रीम कोर्ट में जजों ने कहा कि अगर मैं अपनी पत्नी के साथ बेडरूम में हूं तो यह 'प्राइवेसी' का हिस्सा है. ऐसे में पुलिस मेरे बैडरूम में नहीं घुस सकती. हालांकि अगर मैं बच्चों को स्कूल भेजता हूं तो ये 'प्राइवेसी' के तहत नहीं आता है, क्योंकि यह 'राइट टु एजूकेशन' का मामला है. कोर्ट ने सुनवाई के दौरान कहा कि आप बैंक को अपनी जानकारी देते हैं. मेडिकल इंशोयरेंस और लोन के लिए अपना डाटा देते हैं. यह सब कानून द्वारा संचालित होता है. यहां बात अधिकार की नहीं है. आज डिजिटल जमाने में डाटा प्रोटेक्शन बड़ा मुद्दा है. सरकार को डाटा प्रोटेक्शन के लिए कानून लाने का अधिकार है. सरकार द्वारा गोपनीयता भंग करना एक बात है, लेकिन उदाहरण के तौर पर टैक्सी एग्रीगेटर द्वारा आपका दिया डाटा आपके ही खिलाफ इस्तेमाल कर ले प्राइसिंग आदि में वो उतना ही खतरनाक है.

'राइट टू प्राइवेसी भी अपने आप में संपूर्ण नहीं'
कोर्ट ने कहा, मैं जज के तौर पर बाजार जाता हूं, और आप वकील के तौर पर मॉल जाते हैं. टैक्सी एग्रीगेटर इस सूचना का इस्तेमाल करते हैं. 'राइट टु प्राइवेसी' भी अपने आप में संपूर्ण नहीं है. सरकार को डाटा प्रोटेक्शन के लिए कानून लाने का अधिकार है. राइट टु प्राइवेसी भी अपने आप में संपूर्ण नहीं है. सरकार को वाजिब प्रतिबंध लगाने से रोका भी नहीं जा सकता है. क्या केंद्र के पास आधार के डेटा को प्रोटेक्ट करने के लिए कोई मजबूत मैकेनिज्म है? विचार करने की बात यह है कि मेरे टेलीफोन या ईमेल को सर्विस प्रोवाइडर्स के साथ शेयर क्यों किया जाए? मेरे टेलिफोन पर कॉल आती हैं तो विज्ञापन भी आते हैं. तो मेरा मोबाइल नंबर सर्विस प्रोवाइडर्स से क्यों शेयर किया जाना चाहिए. क्या केंद्र सरकार के पास डेटा प्रोटेक्ट करने के लिए ठोस सिस्टम है? सरकार के पास डेटा को संरक्षण करने लिए ठोस मैकेनिज्म होना चाहिए.

यह सुनिश्चिचत हो कि डाटा सुरक्षित रहे 
कोर्ट ने कहा, हम जानते हैं कि सरकार कल्याणकारी योजनाओं के लिए आधार का डाटा जमा कर रहा है, लेकिन यह भी सुनिश्चित होना चाहिए कि डाटा सुरक्षित रहे. क्या कोर्ट प्राइवेसी की व्याख्या कर सकता है? आप यही कैटलॉग नहीं बना सकते कि किन तत्वों से मिलकर प्राइवेसी बनती है. प्राइवेसी का आकार इतना बड़ा है कि ये हर मुद्दे में शामिल है. अगर हम प्राइवेसी को सूचीबद्ध करने का प्रयास करेंगे तो इसके विनाशकारी परिणाम होंगे. 

अगर 'राइट टू प्राइवेसी' संविधान के प्रावधान में है तो इसे कहां ढूढ़ें? हमारे साथ दिक्कत यह है कि क्या इसे एक से ज्यादा संविधान के प्रावधानों में तलाशा जाए? संविधान की अनुछेद 21 में इसे तलाशना कम कष्टकारी होगा, लेकिन अगर ये आर्टिकल 19 में है तो हमें यह ढूढ़ना होगा कि किस केस के हिसाब ये कहां सही ठहरता है? केंद्र सरकार की तरफ से अटॉर्नी जनरल (AG) केके वेणुगोपाल ने दलील दी कि प्राइवेसी को पूरी तरह मौलिक अधिकार नहीं माना जा सकता, हालांकि कोर्ट को प्राइवेसी का वर्गीकरण करना चाहिए और इसके कुछ हिस्सों को मौलिक अधिकारों के तहत सरंक्षण दिया जा सकता है.

बनाई गई है कमेटी
ASG तुषार मेहता ने कोर्ट को बताया कि यह डेटा पूरी तरह प्रोटेक्टेड है. डेटा प्रोटेक्शन को लेकर सरकार कानून ला रही है और इसके लिए सुप्रीम कोर्ट के जज की अध्यक्षता में कमेटी बनाई गई है. गुजरात, महाराष्ट्र, हरियाणा की बीजेपी सरकारों ने कोर्ट में कहा है कि प्राइवेसी एक मौलिक अधिकार नहीं है, बल्कि एक धारणा है

कपिल सिब्बल की दलील
गैर बीजेपी सरकार वाले चार राज्यों पंजाब, कर्नाटक, पश्चिम बंगाल और पुदुचेरी की ओर से कपिल सिब्बल ने कहा कि 1954 और 1962 के सुप्रीम कोर्ट के जजमेंट में उस तरह कभी विचार नहीं किया जा सकता था जैसी तकनीक आज 21 वीं सदी में मौजूद है. उन्होंने कहा था कि प्राइवेसी संपूर्ण राइट नहीं है न ही हो सकती है. हालांकि कोर्ट को इसमें संतुलन बनाना होगा



Wednesday, 16 August 2017

Friday, 11 August 2017

About 11 Himalayan States

About Himalayan States

Special assistance for the development of Himalayan states
          The eleven Himalayan States of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim have been given Special category status for the purpose plan assistance from the Central Government. This information was given by the Minister of State (Independent Chargefor Planning, Shri Rao Inderjit Singh in a written reply in Lok Sabha today.

           The Minister said the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) growth rate of the States depends on several factors including rate of savings and investments in the States, growth in productivity, business climate, human development, state of infrastructure and State Government efforts through transfer of resources by way of various schemes.
      He said that Planning Commission had constituted a committee to study development in Hill States arising from management of forest land with special focus on creation of infrastructure, livelihood and human development. The scope of the study was confined to eleven Himalayan States viz. Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim. The Committee has submitted its report on 11th November, 2013 to the Planning Commission making certain recommendations pertaining to purpose issues of environmental clearances and fiscal compensation to these States. The report of the committee was discussed in Internal Planning Committee (IPC) meeting held on 12-02-2014. In the said meeting IPC broadly endorsed the recommendations of the Committee. The report required wider consultation with the Ministries/ Departments and concerning State Governments. Therefore the report was circulated to State Governments and Ministries.


Press Information Bureau 
Government of India
Planning Commission

DATE: 19-December-2014


India's National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)





LOK SABHA: New Union Ministry for the Development of Himalayan States

Link to National Disaster Management Authority
link to India meteorological department