Thursday, 7 September 2017

FLOOD, DISASTER & Sendai framework


What do you mean by “Flood”?
It is a temporary inundation of large regions as a result of an increase in reservoir, or
of rivers, flooding their banks because of heavy rains, high winds, cyclones, storm surge
along coast, tsunami, melting snow or dam bursts.
Types of Floods
Flash floods:
It is defined as floods which occur within six hours of the beginning of heavy rainfall , and are usually associated with cloud bursts, storms and cyclones requiring rapid localized warning and immediate response if damage is to be mitigated. In case of flash floods, warning for timely evacuation may not always be possible.
River floods:
Such floods are caused by precipitation over large catchment areas. These floods normally build up slowly or seasonally and may continue for days or weeks as compared to flash floods.
Coastal floods:
Some floods are associated with the cyclonic activities like hurricanes, tropical cyclone etc. Catastrophic flooding is often aggravated by wind-induced storm surges along the coast.
Causes of Flood:
Excessive rainfall in river catchments or concentration of runoff from the tributaries
and river carrying flows in excess of their capacities
Back movement of water in tributaries at their confluence with the main river
Synchronization of flood peaks of the main rivers and tributaries
Landslides causing obstruction to flow and change in the river course
 Poor natural drainage
Cyclone and very intense rainfall
Intense rainfall when river is flowing full
Approach to Flood Management/Prevention
Structural Measures: Attempts to Modify Flood
(a) Dams and Reservoirs
(b) Embankment
(c) Drainage Improvements
(d) Channel Improvements
(e) Diversion of Flood Waters
(f) Using Natural Detention Basin
Non- Structural Measures: Attempts to modify susceptibility of Flood
(a) Flood plain zoning: – It aims to regulate the developments in the flood plains, so that it is compatible with Flood Risk. It recognises the basic fact that the flood plains are essentially the domain of the river, and as such all developmental activities must be compatible with the flood risk involved
(b) Flood forecasting :- Involves observing and collecting hydrological and meteorological data, transmission and then processing the data with a view to work out the likely level to be achieved at a particular site, i.e. to give advance warning
(c) Flood Proofing:-  It is essentially a combination of structural change and emergency action without evacuation. A programme of the flood proofing provides the raised platforms for flood
shelter for men and cattle and raising the public utility installations above flood levels.
(d) Attempts to modify loss burden by way of Disaster relief, Flood fighting, Flood insurance
Main Mitigation Strategies for Flood Disaster Management
Mapping of flood prone areas is a primary step involved in reducing the risk of the region.
Historical records give the indication of flood inundation areas and the period of occurrence and the extent of the coverage.
The basic map is combined with other maps and data to form a complete image of the flood-plain.
Warning can be issued looking into the earlier marked heights of the water levels in case of potential threat. In the coastal areas, the tide levels and land characteristics will determine areas liable to inundation.
Flood hazard mapping will give the proper indication of water flow during floods.

Sendai framework
  • What is Sendai framework:
Sendai Framework is a 15 year (2015-2030) non-binding voluntary agreement which recognizes that states has the primary role to reduce disaster risk an also that responsibility of disaster should be shared with other stakeholders such as private sector, local governments and other stakeholders.
  • It consists of 7 global targets and 4 priorities for action:
  • The Seven Global Targets:
(a) Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100,000 global mortality rate in the decade 2020-2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
(b) Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to lower average global figure per 100,000 in the decade 2020 -2030 compared to the period 2005-2015.
(c) Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030.
(d) Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030.
(e) Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020.
(f) Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of this Framework by 2030.
(g) Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030.
  • The Four Priorities for Action
Priority 1. Understanding disaster risk
Disaster risk management should be based on an understanding of disaster risk in all its dimensions of vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment. Such knowledge can be used for risk assessment, prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response.
Priority 2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
Disaster risk governance at the national, regional and global levels is very important for prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery, and rehabilitation. It fosters collaboration and partnership.
Priority 3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience
Public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures are essential to enhance the economic, social, health and cultural resilience of persons, communities, countries and their assets, as well as the environment.
Priority 4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction
The growth of disaster risk means there is a need to strengthen disaster preparedness for response, take action in anticipation of events, and ensure capacities are in place for effective response and recovery at all levels. The recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction phase is a critical opportunity to build back better, including through integrating disaster risk reduction into development measures.

India is suffering from both man-made and natural disasters. Hence, Sendai surely is significant as it will give opportunity for global cooperation, tech transfer for early warning, risk analysis, community awareness and resilience, providing direction and vision for domestic legislation, will help in ensuring food security and having a socio-economic-political-environmental impact.


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